Education

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

It is one of the neurodevelopmental disorders that results from a lack of chemical conductors (dopamine, noradrenaline) in the cortex of the frontal part (frontal lobe) that facilitate cells to carry out their work and communicate between the ends of the brain.

Types of disorder:

Some symptoms may be more than others. But this does not necessarily mean the absence of other symptoms, and the percentage of symptoms appearing may change at different age stages (such as hyperactivity and impulsivity appears before school age and as soon as he enters school, distraction begins to appear more clearly than others).

1_ Attention Deficit:

They tend to have more distracting symptoms.Its percentage in females is higher than in males.

2- hypermobility and impulsivity:

They have symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity more.Its percentage in males is higher than in females.

3-joint type:

Includes distraction with hyperactivity and impulsivity.It is the most common type.They have nearly all the symptoms of ADHD.

Diagnosing young children with ADHD.

Diagnosing the disorder in young children is very difficult. That’s because developmental problems, such as delayed language skills, may be confused with ADHD.

Therefore, children of preschool age or younger who are suspected of having ADHD, are likely to need evaluation by a professional, such as a psychologist, psychiatrist, speech pathologist or child development specialist.

_ Symptoms of hyperactivity.

There are a Semantics of signs that a child may be experiencing ADHD.

These symptoms include:

_ The child does not settle in one place, and moves his body parts, whether in a sitting or standing position, as he jumps on and climbs on things.

_ He has trouble playing quietly, talks a lot, and exaggerates interrupting others.

_ He does not adhere to games and movement activities that require a lot of effort, so he goes out of the game system, and runs alone or harasses his friends.

_ He is unable to concentrate with any activity for a sufficient period of time or to complete the tasks required of him with excessive forgetfulness.

_ He becomes frustrated or relaxed very easily and has difficulty regulating his emotions.

Treatment.

Standard treatments for ADHD in children include medications, behavioral therapy, and counseling and education services.

_ Stimulant drugs.

Currently, stimulants (psychostimulants) are the most common medications for ADHD. Stimulants seem to boost and balance levels of chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters.

These medications help improve the signs and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder – sometimes they do so effectively in a short period of time.

_ Behavior therapy for ADHD.

Children with ADHD often benefit from behavioral therapy, social skills training, and parenting skills training and counseling, which may be provided by a psychologist, psychologist, social worker, or other mental health professional.

Examples of treatment include:

1. Behavioral therapy.

Educators and parents can learn strategies for changing behavior, such as systems of token rewards and deadlines, for handling difficult situations.

2. Social skills training.

This can help children learn appropriate social behaviors.

3. Parenting skills training.

This can help parents develop ways to understand and guide their child’s behavior.

4. Psychotherapy.

This allows older children with ADHD to talk about problems that bother them, explore negative behavior patterns and learn ways to deal with their symptoms.

5. Family therapy.

Family therapy can help parents and siblings deal with the stresses of life with someone with ADHD.

_ Other conditions that mimic ADHD.

A number of diseases or their treatments may cause signs and symptoms similar to those of ADHD.

Examples include:

_ Learning or language problems.

_ Mood diseases; Such as depression or anxietySeizure disorders.

_ Vision or hearing problems.

_ Treatment of mental transmission disorder.

_ Medical problems or drugs that affect thinking or behavior.

_ Sleep disorders.

_ Brain injury.

_ Lifestyle and home remedies.

Because ADHD is complex and unique in each case of ADHD, it is difficult to make recommendations that are appropriate for all children.

But some of the following suggestions may help create an environment in which your child can succeed.

Children are at home

1. Offer your child a great deal of love and affection.

Children need to hear that they are loved and valued. Focusing on the negative aspects of your child’s behavior can affect and harm your relationship with your child, as well as affect his confidence and self-esteem.

2. Find ways to improve his self-esteem.

Children with ADHD usually do well in art projects, music, dance classes, or martial arts classes. Choose activities based on their interests and abilities.

3. Use simple words and explanations when giving directions to your child.

Speak slowly, calmly, and be very specific. Give one direction at a time. Pause and make eye contact with your child before and during instructions and directions.

4. Give your child adequate timeouts and only punish them with reasonable consequences for disciplining them.

Start with a decisive, yet loving approach that rewards good behavior and moves it away from negative behavior. The timeouts should be fairly short and at the same time long enough for the child to regain control over themselves.

5. Teach your child the system.

Help your child organize a journal for his daily tasks and a diary of the activities he must do, and make sure he has a quiet place to study.

References :

اضطراب نقص الانتباه مع فرط النشاط لدى الأطفال / www.mayoclinic.org

اضطراب فرط الحركة وتشتت الانتباه/ www.moh.gov.sa

هل طفلك مصاب بفرط الحركة؟ إليك حقائق النشاط الزائد/www.aljazeera.net

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