Definition of archeology.

Archeology is the study of the human past using remnants of materials. These remnants can be any creatures that people have created, modified, or used.

Usually portable remains are called artefacts. Artifacts include tools, clothing, and decorations.

The remains that are not carried are called traits. Like pyramids or later holes.

The importance of archeology.Archaeologists use artifacts and features to find out how people lived at specific times and places. They want to know what daily life was like for these people, how they were ruled, how they interacted with each other, and what they believed and appreciated.

Sometimes, artifacts and features provide the only clues about an ancient society or civilization. Prehistoric civilizations did not leave written records behind, so we cannot read about them.

Understanding why ancient cultures built giant stone circles in Stonehenge, England, for example, remains a challenge 5,000 years after the first monoliths were constructed. Archaeologists studying Stonehenge do not have ancient manuscripts to tell them how cultures used this feature. They rely on the massive stones themselves – how they are arranged and the way the site has evolved over time.

Most cultures with writing systems leave written records that archaeologists consult and study. Some of the most valuable written records are everyday items, such as shopping lists and tax forms.

Latin, the language of ancient Rome, helps archaeologists understand artifacts and monuments unearthed in parts of the Roman Empire. The use of Latin illustrates how far the influence of the empire extended, and the records themselves can tell archaeologists what foods were available in a region, how much they cost, and what buildings belonged to families or companies.

Many ancient civilizations had complex writing systems that archaeologists and linguists are still working on. For example, the written system of the Maya language remained a mystery to scholars until the twentieth century. The Maya civilization was one of the most powerful pre-Columbian civilizations in North America, and their temples and manuscripts in Central America were engraved with a set of glyphs or square symbols. A series of circles and lines represent numbers.

By deciphering the Maya text, archaeologists were able to trace the ancestors of the Maya kings and chart the evolution of their calendar and agricultural seasons.

Understanding the basics of the Maya writing system helps archaeologists to:

1. Discover how Mayan culture works.

2. How were they governed.

3. How do they trade with some neighbors and fight war with others.

4. what do they eat.

5. What gods do they worship.

_ History of archeology.

The word “archeology” comes from the Greek word “arkhaios” which means “ancient.” Although some archaeologists study living cultures, most archaeologists are interested in the distant past.

People have excavated monuments and collected artifacts for thousands of years. Often times, these people were not scholars, but robbers and grave robbers looking to make money or create their own personal collections.

The tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun, also known as King Tutankhamun, is one of the most famous archaeological discoveries. Unlike many other Egyptian tombs, King Tut was not discovered by grave robbers. His place of burial remained undisturbed for thousands of years, until it was discovered in 1922. In addition to the mummies of Tutankhamun and his family, the cemetery contained about 5,000 artifacts.

For example, grave robbers have been looting the magnificent tombs in Egypt since the time the pyramids were built. Grave robbery was such a common crime in ancient Egypt that many tombs contain hidden rooms where the family of the deceased lay down treasures.

In Egypt in the mid-nineteenth century, an Egyptian man was found searching for a lost goat through the tomb of Pharaoh Ramses the First (Ramses I ruled for a short period in the 1890s BC). Besides the body of the pharaoh, the tomb contained artifacts such as pottery, paintings, and sculpture. The man sold mummies and artifacts from the grave to anyone who would pay the price.

_ Archeology materials.

Archaeological evidence ranges between the remains of a large city, and some stone pieces, which testify to stone tool makers since ancient times.The main types of archaeological evidence can be mentioned:

1. Movable made finds.

Made by humans, they are human-made materials that can be transported from one place to another without altering their appearance.

It includes materials such as:

stone artifacts such as blades, utensils, and decorative artifacts such as beads.

2. Fixed made finds.

It mainly consists of (houses, pits, tombs, irrigation canals, and many other facilities) that were built by the ancient peoples.

3. Natural finds.

They are natural materials that exist alongside tools and hard artefacts. These finds reveal the way people interacted with their surroundings in ancient times.

Natural finds include, for example, seeds and animal bones.

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