Health

Cerebral palsy in children.

Cerebral palsy, is a general and comprehensive name for the consequences of a defect or damage in a developing brain. And disturbances in the work of various organs in the body.

This brain defect may occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or during the postpartum period, up to the age of 5 years. A brain disorder, called cerebral palsy, does not change over the entire life cycle, but its physical effects change with growth.

People with cerebral palsy may have trouble swallowing, and usually have an imbalance between the eye muscles so that the eyes do not look at the same thing. They may also have reduced range of motion in many joints due to muscle stiffness.

The effect of cerebral palsy on function varies widely. Some people with it can walk, and others need help. Some sufferers have a normal or nearly normal mind, but others have intellectual disabilities. There may also be epilepsy, blindness or deafness.

Types of cerebral palsy.

There are three main types of cerebral palsy that are usually classified according to the picture of movement disorder:

spasticity, spasticity, athetosis and ataxia.

1. Spastic cerebral palsy:

This is the most common form of the disease. Spastic cerebral palsy is characterized by severe muscle tension, resulting in a risk of joint dislocation, deformation of the bones, scoliosis and deformation of the feet and palms of the hands.

2. Athetoid cerebral palsy:

In children with this type of cerebral palsy, we find continuous involuntary movement in the limbs and disturbance in the implementation of voluntary (intentional) movements that sometimes cause difficulty walking.

3. Ataxic cerebral palsy (Ataxia):

This form of the disease is less common and it is characterized by lack of balance and lack of control of movements in the space. Children with ataxic cerebral palsy walk with irregular, hesitant movements and fall a lot.

_ Symptoms.

Signs and symptoms can vary greatly. Movement and coordination problems associated with cerebral palsy include:

▪️ Changes in muscle tone, such as either being too stiff or too flexible.

▪️ Stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes (spasticity).

▪️ Stiff muscles with normal reflexes (sclerosis).

▪️ Lack of balance and muscle coordination (ataxia).

▪️ Tremors or involuntary movements.

▪️ Slow, wriggling movements.

▪️ Delay in reaching the stages of motor skills development, such as raising an arm, sitting up, or crawling.

▪️ Favoring a side of the body, such as reaching with one hand or pulling a leg while crawling.

▪️ Difficulty walking, such as toe walking, crouching, perching like scissors with knees crossed, wide perching, or asymmetric perching.

▪️Excessive drooling or trouble swallowing.

▪️ Difficulty sucking or eating.

▪️ Delayed speech development or difficulty speaking.

▪️ learning difficulties.

▪️ Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as buttoning clothes or picking up tools.

▪️ Seizures.

Brain abnormalities associated with cerebral palsy might also contribute to other neurological problems, including:

▪️ Difficulty seeing and hearing.

▪️ Intellectual disabilities.

▪️ Seizures.

▪️ Abnormal touch or pain perceptions.

▪️ Oral diseases.

▪️ Mental health conditions.

▪️ Urinary incontinence.

Causes.

Cerebral palsy is caused by an abnormality or disruption in brain development, most often before a child is born. In many cases, the cause isn’t known. Factors that can lead to problems with brain development include:

▪️ Gene mutations that lead to abnormal development.

▪️ Maternal infections that affect the developing fetus.

▪️ Fetal stroke, a disruption of blood supply to the developing brain.

▪️ Bleeding into the brain in the womb or as a newborn.

▪️ Infant infections that cause inflammation in or around the brain.

▪️ Traumatic head injury to an infant from a motor vehicle accident or fall.

▪️ Lack of oxygen to the brain related to difficultlabor or delivery, although birth-related asphyxia is much less commonly a cause than historically thought.

Complications.

Muscle weakness, muscle spasticity and coordination problems can contribute to a number of complications either during childhood or in adulthood, including:

1. Contracture.

Contracture is muscle tissue shortening due to severe muscle tightening (spasticity). Contracture can inhibit bone growth, cause bones to bend, and result in joint deformities, dislocation or partial dislocation.

2. Premature aging.

Some type of premature aging will affect most people with cerebral palsy in their 40s because of the strain the condition puts on their bodies.

3. Malnutrition.

Swallowing or feeding problems can make it difficult for someone who has cerebral palsy, particularly an infant, to get enough nutrition. This can impair growth and weaken bones. Some children need a feeding tube to get enough nutrition.

4. Mental health conditions.

People with cerebral palsy might have mental health conditions, such as depression. Social isolation and the challenges of coping with disabilities can contribute to depression.

5. Heart and lung disease.

People with cerebral palsy may develop heart disease and lung disease and breathing disorders.

6. Osteoarthritis.

Pressure on joints or abnormal alignment of joints from muscle spasticity may lead to the early onset of this painful degenerative bone disease.

7. Osteopenia.

Fractures due to low bone density (osteopenia) can stem from several common factors such as lack of mobility, nutritional shortcomings and anti-epileptic drug use.

References :

Cerebral palsy / www.mayoclinic.org

الشلل الدماغي Cerebral palsy / www.webteb.com

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