General Allergy, Prevention and Treatment.

How the allergy occurs.

An allergy occurs when your immune system reacts to a foreign substance – such as pollen, bee venom, or pet dander – or food (that does not cause a reaction in most people).Your immune system produces substances known as antibodies.

When you have an allergy, your immune system creates antibodies that identify the allergen as harmful, although they are not. When you come into contact with an allergen, your immune system’s reaction can lead to inflammation of the skin, sinuses, airways, or digestive tract.

The severity of allergies varies from person to person and can range from minor irritation to anaphylaxis – a life-threatening emergency.

While most types of allergies cannot be cured, treatments can help relieve your allergy symptoms.

Types and symptoms of allergies.

Allergy symptoms, depending on the substance in question, can affect the airways, sinuses, nasal passages, skin, and the digestive system.

Allergic reactions can range from mild to severe. In some severe cases, the allergy can lead to a life-threatening reaction known as anaphylaxis.

Hay fever, also called allergic rhinitis, can cause:


Itching of the nose, eyes, or roof of the mouth.

Runny nose and stuffy nose.

Watery, red, or swollen eyes (conjunctivitis).

A food allergy can cause:

Tingling in the mouth.

Swelling of the lips, tongue, face, or throat.



An insect bite allergy can cause:

Large area swelling (edema) at the site of the bite.

Itching all over the body.

Cough, chest tightness, wheezing or shortness of breath.


A drug allergy can cause:


Itchy skin.


Swelling of the face.

Whistling (panting).


Atopic dermatitis, an allergic skin condition also called eczema, can cause the skin to:


redness .

Peel or peel off.


Some types of allergies, including food allergies and insect stings, can lead to a severe reaction known as anaphylaxis.

A life-threatening medical emergency, anaphylaxis can put you in shock.

Signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis include:


Reduction of Blood pressure.

Severe shortness of breath.

Skin rash .


Fast, weak pulse.

Vomiting and nausea.

Causes of infection in allergies.

An allergy begins when your immune system mistakes a normally harmless substance with a dangerous (invading) substance.

Then the immune system produces antibodies that remain alert to that allergen.

When you are exposed to an allergen again, these antibodies can release a number of immune system chemicals, such as histamine, that cause allergy symptoms.

Common allergens include:

Airborne allergens, such as pollen, animal dander, dust mites and mold.

Certain foods, especially peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, shellfish, eggs and milk.

Insect stings, such as a bee or wasp.

Medicines, especially penicillin or penicillin-based antibiotics – latex or other substances you touch, which can cause allergic skin reactions.

Respiratory sensitivity.

_ Spring allergy.

There is no cure but you can take steps to reduce springtime allergies, from medication to home habits.

Summer allergy.

Summer allergies are usually triggered by pollen from weeds and weeds.

_ Allergy in the fall.

Ragweed, mold and dust mites are the biggest allergens in fall.

Winter allergy.

If you suffer from indoor allergies such as mold and dust mites, you may notice more symptoms during the winter, when you spend more time indoors.

Allergic rhinitis.

It is an immune disorder characterized by an allergic response to pollen and other substances.

There are two types:

seasonal, occurring only during the pollination period of some plants of the year, and perennial occurring throughout the year.

Pollen allergy.

Pollen allergy from trees, grass, or weeds.

Mold allergy.

We are all exposed to some mold every day, and usually there are no problems. But if you are allergic to it, you can have a reaction if you are near it a lot.

Dust allergy.

For critters you can’t see, dust mites can be a lot of trouble.

Canine allergy.

Cat allergy.

Food allergy.

People often have an unpleasant reaction to something they eat and wonder if they have a food allergy.

Milk allergy.

If you have a milk allergy, stinging away from milk, foods containing milk, and dairy products is the only way to prevent a reaction.

Casein allergy.

If a cup of milk or a slice of pizza causes swollen lips, hives, or other symptoms, you may have an allergy to casein, a protein found in milk. Another milk protein associated with allergies is whey.

Some people are allergic to both casein and whey.

Egg allergy.

Egg allergy is more common in children than in adults. Reactions range from mild to severe.

Wheat allergy.

Avoiding wheat can be a challenge because it is found in so many things.

Nut allergy.

If you are allergic to nuts, strictly avoid nuts, including peanuts and nuts like cashews and walnuts, and foods containing nuts are the only way to prevent a reaction.

Fish allergy.

If you are allergic to one type of fish, your doctor may tell you to avoid the others.

Sulfate allergy.

Sulfates are a group of sulfur-based compounds that may occur naturally or may be added to food as a conditioner and preservative.

Soy allergy.

If all you need to do to combat a soy allergy is skip the soy sauce and processed foods as well.

Allergy treatment.

Allergy treatments include:

1. Avoid allergens.

Your doctor will help you take steps to identify and avoid your allergens. This is generally the most important step in preventing allergic reactions and reducing symptoms.

2. Medications.

Depending on your sensitivity, medications can help reduce the immune system reaction and relieve symptoms.

Your doctor may suggest over-the-counter or prescription medications in the form of pills, liquid, nasal sprays, or eye drops.

3. Immunotherapy.

For severe allergies or allergies that have not been completely relieved by other treatments, your doctor may recommend allergy immunotherapy.

This treatment involves a series of injections of purified allergen extracts, usually given over a few years.

Another form of immunotherapy is a tablet that is placed under the tongue until it dissolves. Sublingual medications are used to treat some types of pollen allergies.

Epinephrine emergency.

If you have a severe allergy, you may need to carry an emergency epinephrine injection at all times.

Lifestyle and home remedies.

Some allergy symptoms improve with home treatment.

Symptoms of sinus congestion and hay fever.

This method is often improved by nasal irrigation with saline – rinsing the sinuses with saline and water.

Symptoms of airborne household allergies.

Reduce your exposure to dust mites or pet dander by washing bedding and stuffed toys in hot water frequently, maintaining low humidity, using a vacuum cleaner with a fine filter such as a high-efficiency air filter and replacing the carpet with hard floors.

Mold allergy symptoms.

Reduce humidity in damp areas, such as the bathroom and kitchen, by using ventilation fans and dehumidifiers. Fix leaks inside and outside your home.

Allergy complications.

Among the most important complications of an allergic immune reaction to the body are the following:

Infection with asthma:

As the incidence of asthma is most often triggered by exposure to an allergen.

Nasal polyps:

as the inflammation of the nasal membranes that accompanies allergies may cause the appearance of these polyps, which, depending on their size, may cause breathing problems or reduce the sense of smell.


Allergies contribute to congestion in the sinuses, blocking the normal drainage of mucus, and the formation of nasal polyps, which leads to mucus retention and collection in them.

References :

Mayo Clinic Staff (2016-11-22), “Allergies”، Mayo Clinic“

Allergies Guide”, webmd

Mayo Clinic Staff (2016-11-22), “Allergies”، Mayo“

Allergic rhinitis – Complications”, National Health Service,2016-02-15“

What to do about sinusitis”, Harvard Health Publications

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