Health

German measles “Rubella” during pregnancy and its risks to the pregnant woman and the fetus.

Measles was, until recently, a dangerous infectious disease that could cause death, and the old way of treatment depended on bedding and wearing red clothes, until vaccinations for the disease appeared and receded all over the world, but this does not prevent the emergence of some infections, and it may reach the pregnant woman. Is the effect of measles on pregnant women?

German Measles (Rubella).

Rubella (also known as German measles) is a contagious viral infection that occurs most often in children.

There is a difference between rubella and measles. The rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets when infected people sneeze or cough. It can also be transmitted from pregnant women to their unborn babies.

Its most dangerous complication is the congenital rubella syndrome which infects fetuses.

There is no specific treatment for rubella, but the disease is preventable by vaccination.

Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection distinguished by a red rash and symptoms that last for three days. Rubella is less common than measles. Even though it is a mild infection among children, it has dangerous complications when it infects pregnant women.

Other names.

German measles,  three-day measles, rubella.

Cause.

It happens when the rubella virus is transmitted to the body.

Transmission.

The rubella virus is transmitted by airborne droplets when infected people sneeze or cough.

It can be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her fetus through the placenta.The infectious period is usually 1–5 days after the onset of rash.

Incubation period.

Two-three weeks from being exposed to the rash. The symptoms start appearing afterwards.

Symptoms.

The infected person may not show any symptoms at the beginning, or show very mild symptoms. Then the following symptoms start to appear:

▪️ Fever.

▪️ Headache.

▪️ Cough.

▪️ Inflamed or red eyes.

▪️ Enlarged and swollen lymph nodes.

▪️ Runny or stuffy nose.

▪️ Pharyngitis.

Red rash that affects most people who are infected with rubella. It starts on the face and neck and spreads to the rest of the bodyJoint pain.

The difference between measles and rubella.

Rubella symptoms are usually less severe than measles and go away within 3 days. If a pregnant woman gets rubella during pregnancy, the fetus may be exposed to the so-called congenital rubella syndrome.

Measles and pregnant women.

when a pregnant woman becomes infected with this virus during pregnancy, the fetus is susceptible to infection with the virus that causes the disease. If a pregnant woman is infected with the virus that causes the disease during the first trimester of pregnancy, there is a risk of the fetus developing severe and dangerous congenital anomalies, known as “congenital rubella syndrome” (CRS – Congenital rubella syndrome).

Among these malformations:

hearing loss, cataract ( White Water – Cataract) and other problems in the eyes, heart problems and other health problems.

▪️ A pregnant woman should get the measles vaccination if she has not had it before.

▪️ It is known that a pregnant woman gets measles once in her life.

▪️ And not in all cases, the infection may reach the pregnant woman.

▪️ Measles is transmitted through droplets from a patient to a healthy person.

▪️ It may also be transmitted through contaminated tools.

▪️ Pregnant women should not receive the measles vaccine .

▪️ Also, a woman who is preparing for pregnancy should not receive the serum.

The effects of measles on the fetus.

▪️ Delayed fetal growth.

▪️ malformation of the heart;

▪️ Deformation of the fetus’s vision.

▪️ Mental retardation.

▪️ deafness;

▪️ Therefore, the pregnancy must be disposed of if the pregnant woman has measles.

Complications for fetuses.

▪️ It causes serious problems by 20%…especially when a pregnant woman gets it in the first three months of pregnancy and up to week 14. Measles viruses are transmitted to the fetus through the placenta, but it is less dangerous in the early stages of pregnancy.▪️ The fetus develops inflammation in the middle ear and severe pain. As for the deformities; They are high intraocular pressure – glaucoma – deafness, mental retardation, blindness, slow growth, and inflammation of the heart muscle. The fetus may die if the infection is severe.

▪️ Some other symptoms develop in childhood; This reflects the presence of different types of rubella antibodies in the blood, from which we know whether the infection is old or recent, or resulting from the rubella vaccine .

▪️ The infant develops lung infections that lead to bacterial infections that require hospitalization, and sometimes inflammation of the heart muscle occurs; As the immune proteins that protected the fetus in its mother’s womb are removed, the child becomes prey to the German measles virus.

▪️ Also, the child may develop a serious illness accompanied by a high fever and serious lung infections that may lead to death; Since the infant becomes at risk before the date of the first vaccination, in the period from 11-14 months, if he becomes infected from his siblings or from other adults who have not received a measles vaccination.

German measles” Rubell “treatment.

Pregnant women who have not been vaccinated against the disease should consult a doctor. A doctor may recommend an injection of immunoglobulin (IG – Immunoglobulin) if a pregnant woman has been exposed to the virus. This injection does not prevent the disease, but it may help relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of congenital malformations, although it does not provide complete and absolute protection against congenital malformations. There are cases where babies were born with congenital anomalies even after pregnant mothers were injected with that injection.

Reference :

مخاطر الحصبة الألمانية أثناء الحمل على الحامل والجنين/https://www.sayidaty.net

الحصبة الألمانية/https://www.moh.gov.sa

تأثير الحصبة على الحامل/https://www.sayidaty.net

الحصبة الألمانيةRubella/https://www.webteb.com

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