He is Abu Ali Al-Hassan Bin Al-Hassan Bin Al-Haytham, and he was known in foreign sources as AlhazenHe is an Arab Muslim scholar.He has made great contributions to the principles of optics, as well as in anatomy, astronomy, engineering and mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and science in general with his introduction of the scientific method.
Sometimes called Al Basri, after his birthplace in Basra in Iraq (Mesopotamia), then ruled by the Buyid dynasty in Persia.He was born in 965 in Basra, and educated there and in Baghdad.Ibn Al-Haytham died in 1040 AD, at the age of 74, in the city of Cairo.
Ibn al-Haytham was one of those few children, who was educated in his early years in a mosque in Basra – the Basra Mosque was an important area for religious practice as well as a center for education.As a devout Muslim, Ibn al-Haytham spent a large portion of his life understanding and serving God. When he was still a student.
The mercurial caliph summoned him to Egypt to organize the flood of the Nile, but he knew the futility of this project, and he pretended to be insane for fear of the caliph’s anger. He remained under forced residence until the death of the caliph.
During this time, he wrote part of his influential book or Optics and dozens of other important treatises on physics and mathematics.
He later traveled to Spain, and during this period, he had ample time to undertake his scientific assignments, which included optics, mathematics, physics, medicine, and the development of scientific methods – all of which he left many notable books.
Ibn Al-Haytham Studies.
Ibn al-Haytham is considered the father of optics and has the book of optics, which correctly explained and proved the modern interference theory of visual perception, and his experiments in optics, including experiments on lenses, mirrors, refraction and reflection, and the scattering of light into its constituent colors.
He studied microscopic vision and the illusion of the moon, speculating on the finite velocity, straight propagation and electromagnetic aspects of light, and argued that light rays are streams of energy particles traveling in straight lines.
Because of his quantitative and experimental approach in physics and science, he is considered a pioneer of the modern scientific method and experimental physics, and some described him as the “first scientist” for this reason.
He is also considered by some to be the founder of physical psychology and experimental psychology for his experimental approach to the psychology of visual perception, and a pioneer in the philosophical field of phenomena. His book of optics, along with Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, is ranked as one of the most influential books in the history of physics.
Discoveries of Ibn Al-Haytham
1- Ibn al-Haytham described the pinhole camera and invented the dark camera (an introduction to the modern camera).
2- Discover Fermat’s principle for the least time and the law of inertia (known as Newton’s first law of motion).
3_ He discovered the concept of momentum (part of Newton’s second law of motion), described the attraction between masses and was aware of the acceleration due to gravity at a distance.
4- Discover the celestial bodies by resorting to the laws of physics.
The first criticism and reform of the Ptolemaic model, first he mentioned Wilson’s theory in number theory, and he was a pioneer in analytical geometry, formulated and solved Ibn al-Haytham’s problem geometrically, developed and proved the first general formula for calculating infinitesimal calculus using mathematical induction, and in his visual research he laid the foundations for the subsequent development of astronomy The telescopic, in addition to the microscope and the use of optics, helps in Renaissance art.
Ibn al-Haytham moved to study the works of Aristotle. In his autobiography he wrote: “When I found out what Aristotle had done, I indulged my desire to understand philosophy wholeheartedly.” By immersing himself in philosophy, he read many of the works of Aristotle, began summarizing his works and eventually commenting on them.
When Ibn al-Haytham worked on such messages, his life took a new direction. Perhaps due to his wealthy family and his father’s high position in the Basra government, Ibn al-Haytham was appointed as a minister or a high-ranking official.
Some historians believe that his role was Minister of Finance, while others believed that he was a civil engineer in charge of projects for the public – this speculation was made due to the fact that he wrote some books on finance as well as civil engineering. If he was indeed a civil engineer, Ibn al-Haytham is known to have shown an interest in hydrodynamics and even wrote books on canals and dams.
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