Intestinal ischemia is described by doctors as an imbalance between oxygen intake and oxygen consumption along the digestive tract.The mesenteric arteries supply the small and large intestines, and when one of these arteries is narrowed, blocked, or narrowed, mesenteric ischemia appears.This condition is known as mesenteric ischemia or mesenteric ischemia, which is accompanied by severe abdominal pain; Because the arteries are clogged, reduced blood flow can lead to intestinal death.This disease usually affects those over the age of fifty, as well as the elderly over the age of sixty, especially smokers. The number of infected women is more than men; The rate is 3 women to 1 man only.
▪️Acute mesenteric ischemia.
Signs and symptoms of the acute form of mesenteric ischemia include:
_ Abrupt, severe abdominal pain.
_ Urgent need to have a bowel movementFever.
_ Nausea and vomiting.
▪️Chronic mesenteric ischemia.
Signs and symptoms of the chronic form of mesenteric ischemia include:
_ Abdominal pain that starts about 30 minutes after eating.
_ Pain that worsens over an hour.
_ Pain that goes away within one to three hours.
Both acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are caused by a decrease in blood flow to the small intestine. Acute mesenteric ischemia is most commonly caused by a blood clot in the main mesenteric artery. The blood clot often originates in the heart. The chronic form is most commonly caused by a buildup of plaque that narrows the arteries.
If not treated promptly, acute mesenteric ischemia can lead to:
1. Sepsis. This potentially life-threatening condition is caused by the body releasing chemicals into the bloodstream to fight infection. In sepsis, the body overreacts to the chemicals, triggering changes that can lead to multiple organ failure.
2. Irreversible bowel damage. Insufficient blood flow to the bowel can cause parts of the bowel to die.
3. Death. Both of the above complications can lead to death.
People with chronic mesenteric ischemia can develop:
1. Fear of eating. This occurs because of the after-meal pain associated with the condition.
2. Unintentional weight loss. This can occur as a result of the fear of eating.
3. Acute-on-chronic mesenteric ischemia. Symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia can progress, leading to the acute form of the condition.
Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia.
▪️A doctor’s examination.
▪️Computed tomography (CT) angiography.
If the person has typical symptoms of acute mesenteric ischemia or if the abdomen is very tender, doctors usually take the person right to surgery.
If the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia is not clear, doctors do CT angiography (a special CT scan using radiopaque dye injected in an arm vein to produce images of blood vessels) to look for swelling of the intestines or blockages in the arteries that supply blood to the intestines.
X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen are other tests that may be done.
Treatment of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia.
▪️ Drugs to prevent clotting.
If mesenteric ischemia is diagnosed during surgery, the blood vessel blockage can sometimes be removed or bypassed, but other times the affected intestine must be removed.
If mesenteric ischemia is diagnosed during CT angiography, doctors may try to relieve the blockage in the blood vessels using angiography. In angiography, a small flexible tube (catheter) is threaded through the artery in the groin and into the arteries of the intestines. If a blockage is seen during angiography, sometimes it can be opened by injecting certain drugs, suctioning out a blood clot using a special angiography catheter, or inflating a small balloon within the artery to widen it and then placing a small tube or manufactured mesh (stent) to keep it open. If doctors cannot successfully open the blockage using these procedures, the person needs surgery to open the blockage or to remove the affected portion of the intestine.
After recovery, many people need to take a drug to help prevent blood clotting.
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia/https://www.msdmanuals.com/home/digestive-disorders/gastrointestinal-emergencies/acute-mesenteric-ischemia