geologySciences

petroleum.

Petroleum is a naturally flammable liquid that is derived from a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and liquid organic compounds.

Here are the top ten petroleum products and their uses.

1. Gasoline:

It is a transparent liquid obtained from the fractional distillation of crude oil.Gasoline consists of organic compounds that are used primarily in internal combustion engines.Gasoline can be used in vehicles, compressors, electric generators, etc.It is used widely and massively all over the world.

2. Kerosene.

This is also known as paraffin. It is a flammable liquid that contains hydrocarbons.They are widely used throughout the world for heating, cooking, fuel lighting, toys and the primary fuel for modern jet engines.The boiling point of kerosene ranges from 150 ° C to 275 ° C to avoid fire hazards during storage and handling. The use of kerosene includes pesticides, solvents, lubricants, x-ray crystallography, etc.

Aviation fuel should be kept clean and free of liquids from wax particles at the low temperatures of high-altitude flights. The boiling point of jet fuel is -50 ° C (-58 ° C). The fuel should be free of any suspended water particles that could potentially clog the fuel system with ice particles.

3. Lubricant.

Viscosity is the main characteristic by which a lubricant is derived and classified. It is used to reduce friction between surfaces and has been found to have thermal and hydraulic stability as well as a low freezing point.

Lubricants contain 90 percent essential oil and 10 percent additives. The boiling range ranges from 300 ° C (572 ° F) to 370 ° C (700 ° C). It is used for motor oils, and it prevents corrosion, rust, heat transfer and power transmission.

4. Paraffin wax.

Wax is hard by nature and is also used as a lubricant.It is mostly kept in a solid temperature room.Paraffin is used to make wax material like celand, crayons, surfboards with wax, floors, candles making and cosmetics like Vaseline etc. Its boiling point is greater than 370 degrees Celsius.

5. Diesel.

Diesel is a very low sulfur containing low amount of sulfur. It is a derivative of petroleum obtained by partial distillation of crude oil with a boiling range of 250 ° C (392 ° F) and 350 ° C (662 ° F) at atmospheric pressure.

Diesel is used primarily to power automobile, truck, bus, and rail engines. It is also used in gas turbines and external combustion engines.

6. Asphalt.

This is known as bitumen. It is black and thicker than petroleum obtained both naturally and as a refined product.

It is classified as a layer that has the same viscosity as cold molasses. It is mainly used for paving roads and is obtained by fractional distillation if the crude oil is at 525 ° C (977 ° F). Another use of asphalt is in waterproofing products intended to seal surfaces etc.

7. Coal tar.

Tar can be made from petroleum, wood, charcoal, and peat. It is obtained through a mixture of several organic compounds called destructive distillation.

Its end products are made of various hydrocarbons and free carbon. The boiling point of tar is greater than 600 ° C. Tar is used as a disinfectant for ship hulls and for sealing surfaces. Wood tar is also used as a spice, cosmetic, anti-dandruff, flavor, shampoo, etc.

8. Petrochemicals.

As the name suggests, petrochemicals are chemical products that are derived from petroleum. They are classified as olefins and aromatics.

The subcategories are obtained through catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Petrochemicals are produced by partial distillation of natural gas and crude oil.

It is used in fertilizer, polishing, wax, food additive, synthetic shoes, plastic bottles, etc., and its boiling point ranges from 30 ° C to 200 ° C.

9. Liquefied Petroleum Gas.

This is called a flammable liquid and is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. It is produced by refining crude oil and its common forms are propane and butane.

They are used in heating appliances, used as a coolant, for cooking, in vehicles, etc.The boiling range of LPG is less than 25 ° C.

10. Fuel oils.

Fuel oil is the heaviest fuel that can be derived from refining crude oil. It is obtained from petroleum distillation.Fuel oils have many applications that include: heating homes, used for trucks, ships and cars, used in offices, as backup in generators, power stations, etc.

It is produced by partial distillation of crude oil between 370 ° C (700 ° F) and 600 ° C (1112 ° F) boiling range.

References:

Top 11 petroleum products and their uses / nfoguidenigeria.com

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