Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.

_ About Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi.

Yusuf bin Ayyub bin Shadi bin Marawan bin Yaqoub al-Duwaini al-Tikriti. Famous by the title of Saladin Al Ayoubi.

(Born 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia [now in Iraq] – died on March 4, 1193, Damascus [now in Syria]).

A Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and most famous Muslim heroes.

In the wars against the Christian Crusaders, he achieved great success with the capture of Jerusalem (2 October 1187), ending nearly nine decades of occupation by the Franks.

_ The lineage of Saladin.

Saladin belongs to a Kurdish family, of generous origin, and of great honor, and this family belongs to a Kurdish tribe that is considered one of the nobles of the Kurds in lineage, and a clan, and this clan is known as Rawadism, and it descends from the town of Dwin located at the last border of Azerbaijan near the city of Tbilisi in Armenia, The Ayyubids to Ayoub bin Shadi, and Ibn al-Atheer considered them the most honorable of the Kurds. Because no slavery was ever performed on any of them, just as Saladin’s father, Najm al-Din Ayyub, and his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh when they came to Iraq, and the Levant, they were not shepherds, but rather they were highly experienced in political and administrative affairs. Some Ayyubids tried to deny their Kurdish origin, and their adherence to Arab blood in general, and the offspring of the Umayyads in particular.

Whatever the origin of the Ayyubid house; Their appearance on the scene of events in the Islamic East became apparent since the sixth century AH / twelfth century AD when Shadi – their great-grandfather – assumed some administrative positions in the Tikrit citadel; Which was a fief of Behrouz al-Khadim, one of the princes of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad bin Malakshah, and Tikrit, located on the right bank of the Tigris River north of Samarra, controlled most of the main roads passing between Iraq and the Levant, and most of its inhabitants were Kurds, and he moved to Shadi with his two sons Najm al-Din Ayoub, and Asad al-Din Shirkuh, and graduated in the administrative positions therein; Even the guardian of the cargo post, and when his son Najm al-Din Ayyub passed away.

His career.

His official career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander during the reign of Prince Nur al-Din, who was Zangi’s son and successor.During three military campaigns led by his Polytheists to Egypt to prevent its fall into the hands of the Latin Christians (Franks) rulers of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, a complex tripartite conflict arose between Amalric I, the king of Jerusalem. Shawer, the powerful vizier of the Fatimid Caliph of Egypt; And Shirkuh.

After the death of Shirkuh and after the order to assassinate Shawar, Salah al-Din was appointed, in 1169 at the age of 31, as commander of the Syrian forces in Egypt and minister to the Fatimid caliph there.His relatively rapid rise to power must be attributed not only to the tribal favoritism of his Kurdish family but also to his budding talents.

As a minister of Egypt, he received the title of “king,” although he was generally known as the Sultan.

Saladin’s position was further strengthened when, in 1171, he abolished the weak and unpopular Shiite Fatimid Caliphate, and announced a return to Sunni Islam in Egypt.Although he theoretically remained a follower of Nur al-Din for a while, this relationship ended with the death of the Syrian Emir in 1174.

Using his rich agricultural holdings in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved to Syria with a small but carefully disciplined army. To claim guardianship on behalf of the young son of his former governor.

He soon abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he pursued passionately the goal of uniting all the Islamic lands in Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt, according to his own standards.This was accomplished through skilled diplomacy, backed when necessary by the swift and determined use of military force.Gradually, his reputation grew as a dignified and virtuous ruler, free of pretension, immorality, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter disagreement and intense rivalry that until then was hindering the Muslims in their resistance to the Crusaders, Saladin’s sole goal was to push them to rearm physically and spiritually.

All of Saladin’s work was inspired by an intense and unwavering dedication to the idea of ​​jihad, or holy war. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Islamic religious institutions. He lured their scholars and preachers, established colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write constructive works, especially on jihad itself. Through moral renewal, which was an integral part of his own way of life.

_ Saladin and the Crusades.

Saladin also succeeded in tipping the military balance of power in his favor – by standardizing and disciplining a large number of unruly forces rather than using new or improved military techniques.

When he finally managed, in 1187, to throw his full force into conflict with the Latin Crusader kingdoms, his armies were equal. On July 4, 1187, with the help of his good military sense and immense deficiency on the part of his enemy, Saladin besieged and destroyed in one fell swoop an exhausted and insane army of the Crusaders at Ain, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

The losses were so great among the Crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun almost the entire kingdom of Jerusalem.

Acre, Torun, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nablus, Jaffa (Jaffa) and Ashkelon (Ashkelon) fell within three months. But Saladin’s achievement and the most disastrous blow to the entire Crusader movement came on October 2, 1187, when the city of Jerusalem, sacred to Muslims and Christians alike, surrendered to Saladin’s army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks.

Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi and Bayt al-Maqdis.

Among his words – may God have mercy on him – were: “How do I enjoy joy, food, and the pleasure of a dream and the Holy House in the hands of the Crusaders ?!”

And God honored Jerusalem with Salah al-Din just as he honored Salah al-Din in Bayt al-Maqdis, so he opened it on Rajab 27, 583 AH, and Judge Muhyiddin bin Zaki al-Din rose to deliver the first Friday sermon after nearly a hundred years. Your hands are the prophetic miracles, the Badriya expectations, the friendly designs, the age conquests, the Ottoman armies, the Alawite attacks.

Among his attributes – may God have mercy on him -:

1. Abu Shama said:

He was – may God have mercy on him – strong, rational, dignified, dignified, courageous, highly conquered, high-energy. No one of his companions disagreed over him in his days, and people believed in his injustice, and hoped for his support.

2- The Baptist said:

“He siphoned off the majlis out of humor. Hearing the hadith is influenced by the isnads, sweetly, relieving stumbling, pious, pure, loyal, nourishing and not getting angry, he did not respond to asking, and not ashamed, saying, Much righteousness and charity. I have not seen him prayed except in congregation.”

His death – may God have mercy on him -:

Saladin died in the Citadel of Damascus at the age of fifty-sevenOn the sixteenth of Safar, 589 AH, on Saturday, he had a bile fever that was more than apparent in his stomach, and the disease became more severe on him until he died on Wednesday the twenty-seventh of Safar, in the year 589 AH.

المراجع :

صلاح الدين الأيوبي.. أصوله ونشأته وحياته الأسريةد. علي الصلابي/


“صلاح الدين الأيوبي”،

محمد سرحان (17-12-2008)، “الناصر صلاح الدين الأيوبي”،

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