EducationHealth

Stroke.

Stroke is a death in brain cells and is the result of lack of blood supply to the brain due to the accumulation of lumps or clots in the bloodstream or rupture of blood vessels, resulting in a loss of control of abilities in the brain (abilities include speech, movement and memory The degree of injury depends on the extent of brain tissue damage.

A stroke is a medical emergency, and prompt treatment is crucial. Early action can reduce brain damage and other complications.

Types of stroke.

And there are two types of stroke.

First type: Stroke that occurs as a result of blockage or limitation of blood flow in the arteries that feed the brain, where clots form in the bloodstream, causing it to block or narrow, and it is often due to the accumulation of cholesterol inside the arteries and occurs in 80% of cases of stroke.

The second type:From the stroke, it is called a hemorrhagic clot that occurs as a result of a rupture or explosion in a weak spot of the artery wall in the brain, and it occurs in 15% of people with stroke, and there is about 5% clot that occurs as a result of blood spilling in the surrounding area in a membrane of the brain membranes as a result of an explosion in the brain Blood vessels.

Factors related to hemorrhagic stroke include:

1. Uncontrolled high blood pressure.

2. Overtreatment with blood thinners (anticoagulants).

3. Bulges at weak spots in your blood vessel walls (aneurysms).

4. Trauma (such as a car accident).

5. Protein deposits in blood vessel walls that lead to weakness in the vessel wall (cerebral amyloid angiopathy).

6. Ischemic stroke leading to hemorrhage.

What factors may increase the risk of a stroke.

( Obesity – diabetes – high blood pressure – high cholesterol – smoking – psychological stress) .

Symptoms.

If you or someone you’re with may be having a stroke, pay particular attention to the time the symptoms began. Some treatment options are most effective when given soon after a stroke begins.

Signs and symptoms of stroke include:

▪️ Trouble speaking and understanding what others are saying. You may experience confusion, slur your words or have difficulty understanding speech.

▪️ Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. You may develop sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg. This often affects just one side of your body. Try to raise both your arms over your head at the same time. If one arm begins to fall, you may be having a stroke. Also, one side of your mouth may droop when you try to smile.

▪️ Problems seeing in one or both eyes. You may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eyes, or you may see double.

▪️ Headache. A sudden, severe headache, which may be accompanied by vomiting, dizziness or altered consciousness, may indicate that you’re having a stroke.

▪️ Trouble walking. You may stumble or lose your balance. You may also have sudden dizziness or a loss of coordination.

Effects of a stroke.

As a result of damage to brain tissue, it may cause physical disabilities such as partial, hemi or complete paralysis, loss of senses, difficulty speaking, vision disturbances, and sometimes memory loss because the death of brain cells in the affected areas leads to the loss of the work of the damaged neurons and the degree of disability returns. To the location of its occurrence in the brain, the severity of the stroke and the time of its first aid, which results in the level of treatment and health rehabilitation, and in addition to the start of the rapid rehabilitation program is the key to successful treatment.

Risk factors.

Many factors can increase your stroke risk. Potentially treatable stroke risk factors include:

Lifestyle risk factors.

▪️ Being overweight or obese.

▪️ Physical inactivity.

▪️ Heavy or binge drinking.

▪️ Use of illegal drugs such as cocaine and methamphetamine.

Medical risk factors.

▪️ High blood pressure.

▪️ Cigarette smoking or secondhand smoke.

▪️ exposure.

▪️ High cholesterol.

▪️ Diabetes.

▪️ Obstructive sleep apnea.

▪️ Cardiovascular disease, including heart failure, heart defects, heart infection or abnormal heart rhythm, such as atrial fibrillation.

▪️ Personal or family history of stroke, heart attack or transient ischemic attack.

▪️ COVID-19 infection.

Prevention.

Knowing your stroke risk factors, following your doctor’s recommendations and adopting a healthy lifestyle are the best steps you can take to prevent a stroke. If you’ve had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (TIA), these measures might help prevent another stroke. The follow-up care you receive in the hospital and afterward also may play a role.

Many stroke prevention strategies are the same as strategies to prevent heart disease. In general, healthy lifestyle recommendations include:

▪️ Controlling high blood pressure (hypertension). This is one of the most important things you can do to reduce your stroke risk. If you’ve had a stroke, lowering your blood pressure can help prevent a subsequent TIA or stroke. Healthy lifestyle changes and medications are often used to treat high blood pressure.

▪️ Lowering the amount of cholesterol and saturated fat in your diet. Eating less cholesterol and fat, especially saturated fat and trans fats, may reduce the buildup in your arteries. If you can’t control your cholesterol through dietary changes alone, your doctor may prescribe a cholesterol-lowering medication.

▪️ Quitting tobacco use. Smoking raises the risk of stroke for smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Quitting tobacco use reduces your risk of stroke.

▪️ Managing diabetes. Diet, exercise and losing weight can help you keep your blood sugar in a healthy range. If lifestyle factors don’t seem to be enough to control your diabetes, your doctor may prescribe diabetes medication.

▪️ Maintaining a healthy weight. Being overweight contributes to other stroke risk factors, such as high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

▪️ Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. A diet containing five or more daily servings of fruits or vegetables may reduce your risk of stroke. The Mediterranean diet, which emphasizes olive oil, fruit, nuts, vegetables and whole grains, may be helpful.

▪️ Exercising regularly. Aerobic exercise reduces your risk of stroke in many ways. Exercise can lower your blood pressure, increase your levels of good cholesterol, and improve the overall health of your blood vessels and heart. It also helps you lose weight, control diabetes and reduce stress. Gradually work up to at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity — such as walking, jogging, swimming or bicycling — on most, if not all, days of the week.

▪️ Drinking alcohol. Heavy alcohol consumption increases your risk of high blood pressure, ischemic strokes and hemorrhagic strokes. Alcohol may also interact with other drugs you’re taking. However, drinking small to moderate amounts of alcohol.

▪️ Treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Your doctor may recommend a sleep study if you have symptoms of OSA — a sleep disorder that causes you to stop breathing for short periods repeatedly during sleep. Treatment for OSA includes a device that delivers positive airway pressure through a mask to keep your airway open while you sleep.

▪️ Avoiding illegal drugs. Certain street drugs, such as cocaine and methamphetamine, are established risk factors for a TIA or a stroke.

Reference :

الإسعافات الأولية عند الإصابة بالجلطة الدماغية/https://elakademiapost.com/

stroke/https://www.mayoclinic.org

إسعاف الجلطة _السكتة الدماغية /https://9haty.com

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