Ancient civilizations were distinguished by the presence of cities, forts, temples, walls, war castles and pyramids, all of which were built in a highly organized and accurate engineering manner.
Science enabled us to understand the historical events and cultures of civilizations that made up our world today by discovering fossils, artifacts, and ancient ruined cities associated with the ancients.
It is very difficult to arrange ancient civilizations based on their importance, because each civilization made several important contributions to humans.
1. The Mesopotamian civilization, the oldest ancient civilizations.
The oldest civilization in history is the ancient Mesopotamian civilization that existed between 3500 BC and 500 BC in the northeast of the Zagros Mountains, that is, in the locations of Iraq, Syria and Turkey.
And the most famous of its civilizations are the civilizations of Sumer, Akkad, Babylon, Assyria, and Chaldeans, which originated from Iraq. With the flourishing of civilizations in Mesopotamia and at simultaneous and successive times, the neighboring lands were occupied, and parts of Iran were occupied in the east, specifically the Elam civilization (which is now known as Khuzestan province) and west of Syria, reaching Palestine, where the Babylonian exile took place during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar.
About 10 thousand years ago, man began to cultivate, then began to domesticate animals for food and assistance in agriculture.
The people of Mesopotamia came to implement all the good systems in one place, establishing the first civilization in the world.
2. The Indus Valley Civilization is the second oldest ancient civilization.
The Indus Valley civilization dates back to the Bronze Age in the northwestern regions of South Asia, and it continued to exist from 3300 BC until 1300 BC, and reached its full growth in the period between 2600 BC and 1900 BC.
Its location extends from northeastern Afghanistan, through a large area of Pakistan, to western and northwestern India. The Indus Valley civilization flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through Pakistan, and along a network of perennial rivers, fed mostly by the monsoons, which once flowed near the Gagar Hakra monsoon in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.
The people of the Indus Valley civilization have made great progress in calculating length, mass and time, and based on the artifacts, it is clear that the culture of this civilization was rich in arts and crafts, so it is considered one of the most important civilizations in history.
3. The ancient Egyptian civilization is the third oldest ancient civilization.
The ancient Egyptian civilization was centered on the banks of the Nile River in what is now the Arab Republic of Egypt. The ancient Egyptian civilization followed the prehistoric era and merged around 3100 BC (according to the traditional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the rule of Mina (often identified with Narmer). The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as the Intermediate Periods: The Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the Modern Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age Egypt reached the height of its power in the New Kingdom, where it ruled Much of Nubia and a large part of the Near East, after which it entered a period of slow decline.
The most important characteristic of this civilization is the amazing culture of its people, the pyramids, and the mummies that preserve the bodies of the ancient pharaohs to this day.
It also introduced the first solar calendars, hieroglyphs and much more.
The history of civilizations tells us that the Egyptian civilization was one of the most important ancient civilizations in the world at all.
4. The Mayan civilization is the fourth oldest ancient civilization.
The Maya civilization appeared in the period between 2600 BC and 900 BC in Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco, Chiapas, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador and Honduras, and was distinguished by a very good understanding of astronomy.
The population of the fourth oldest civilization in history reached about 19 million people, meaning it was a great civilization.
And they had a civilization whose history is estimated at about 3000 years. During that long time hundreds of dialects were spoken in those lands, from which today about 44 different Mayan languages spawn. It was known as the only civilization in the development of the written language in the Americas in pre-Columbian times, as well as art, architecture, mathematics and astronomy systems.
5. Chinese civilization is the fifth oldest ancient civilization.
The Chinese civilization arose around the Yellow River and in the Yangtze region, which is the place of the state of China now, in the year 1600 BC, and this great civilization continued to offer a lot to humanity until 1046 BC.
Among the most important components of Chinese civilization are literature, music, visual arts, martial arts, food, religion, and others.
6. The ancient Greek civilization the sixth oldest ancient civilization in the world.
It was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Greek Dark Ages in the thirteenth century to the end of the Old Classical Age in the ninth century BC (about 600 AD). Immediately after this period began the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine period.
The ancient Greeks laid down the principles of geometry, biology and physics, and a clear idea of how important this civilization is in the world can be taken by knowing that Pythagoras, Archimedes, Socrates, Euclid, Plato, Aristotle, and Alexander the Great belonged to it.
7. Persian civilization is the seventh oldest ancient civilizations.
The history of ancient civilizations states that the Persian civilization appeared in the year 550 BC, and collapsed in the year 331 BC.Persian civilization originated in the land of the state of Iran today.
Although the Persians seized power in the world for just over 200 years, they conquered lands of more than two million square miles, as they occupied parts of Egypt, parts of Greece, and parts of India, where the Persian civilization is known for its military strength. And the wisdom of its rulers.
8. Roman civilization is the eighth oldest ancient civilization.
It is a civilization that emerged from a small agricultural community on the Italian peninsula in the middle of the eighth century BC. It appeared along the coasts of the Mediterranean and became one of the largest empires of the ancient world.
At the height of its power, civilization ruled a very large part of the globe, as all areas surrounding the Mediterranean were part of the civilization of ancient Rome.
Civilization and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they called themselves Mexica, or Tenushka, and more generally, to each of the Nahuatl-speaking ethnic groups who were living in the Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest. The name Aztec is derived from the term “Aztlán”, the mythical country of Mexico. According to tradition, Aztlán was located to the northwest of the Valley of Mexico, and possibly in western Mexico. As the name Mexico is derived from Mexico.
9. The Aztec civilization is the ninth oldest ancient civilization.
Civilization and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they called themselves Mexica, or Tenushka, and more generally, to each of the Nahuatl-speaking ethnic groups who were living in the Valley of Mexico at the time of the Spanish conquest.
The name Aztec is derived from the term “Aztlán,” the legendary country of Mexico. According to tradition, Aztlán was located to the northwest of the Valley of Mexico, and possibly in western Mexico. As the name Mexico is derived from Mexico.
10. The Inca civilization is the tenth of the oldest ancient civilizations.
An ancient empire built by the peoples of the Indians in the South American region, it was the largest empire in South America in the pre-Columbian era, and it has a very ancient civilization and includes the land of the Incas, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, and part of Chile and Argentina. They built their capital, Cusco, which is a luxurious city full of temples and palaces located At an elevation of 11,000 feet above sea level in the Andes Mountains and has been called the Holy City of the Sun, it has an area of 990,000 square kilometers.
Characteristics of civilization.
All civilizations have certain characteristics. These include:
(1) Large population centers.
(2) Archaeological architecture and unique art styles.
(3) Common Communication Strategies.
(4) Land administration systems.
(5) Division of labor.
(6) The division of people into social and economic classes.
The fall of civilizations.
Many civilizations flourished and then failed or collapsed, for a number of reasons. But many historians refer to three patterns in the fall of civilizations:
▪️ Internal change (such as diseases and epidemics).
▪️ External pressure (such as occupation, wars, and destruction).
▪️ Environmental disasters (tsunami, flood, earthquake).
The fall of civilizations never happens as a result of a single event or pattern.
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