High blood pressure is a chronic disease, and it is easy to live with by taking regular doses of medication and following a healthy diet.However, many patients suffer from complications of blood pressure disease.
The DASH diet is a group of healthy nutritional methods that help reduce the level of sodium in food, and increase the rate of potassium, calcium, and magnesium, these important elements that help lower blood pressure.
The DASH diet.
A set of dietary recommendations to control high blood pressure, a diet rich in dietary fiber such as vegetables and fruits, and low in sodium, saturated fats and sugars. Following this diet with regular exercise may lead to control of high blood pressure.
This diet would be easy to apply and its benefit is not only limited to controlling high blood pressure, but also reduces the risk of strokes and cardiovascular disease.
Types of the DASH diet in terms of sodium levels.
The DASH diet focuses on vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products and moderate amounts of whole grains, fish, poultry and nuts.
In addition to the standard DASH diet, there is another form of the diet that is lower in sodium, and you can choose the form of the diet that best meets your health needs:
1. The standard DASH systemYou can consume up to 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium per day.
2. The DASH Diet Low SodiumYou can consume up to 1,500 mg of sodium per day.
These two forms of the DASH diet aim to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet compared to what you would get on a traditional diet, and the difference between the two can be as large as 3,500 mg of sodium per day or more.
Dash diet ingredients.
– Both forms of the DASH diet include plenty of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products.
– The DASH diet also includes some fish, poultry, and vegetables.
– You can eat red meat, sweets and fats in small quantities.
– The DASH diet is low in saturated fat, cholesterol and total fat.
– Here’s a look at the recommended servings from each food group to get the 2,000 calories a day on the DASH diet.
DASH diet: What to eat.
Both versions of the DASH diet include lots of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. The DASH diet also includes some fish, poultry and legumes, and encourages a small amount of nuts and seeds a few times a week.
You can eat red meat, sweets and fats in small amounts. The DASH diet is low in saturated fat, trans fat and total fat.
Here’s a look at the recommended servings from each food group for the 2,000-calorie-a-day DASH diet.
▪️ Grains: 6 to 8 servings a day.
Grains include bread, cereal, rice and pasta. Examples of one serving of grains include 1 slice whole-wheat bread, 1 ounce dry cereal, or 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice or pasta.
_ Focus on whole grains because they have more fiber and nutrients than do refined grains. For instance, use brown rice instead of white rice, whole-wheat pasta instead of regular pasta and whole-grain bread instead of white bread. Look for products labeled “100% whole grain” or “100% whole wheat.”
_ Grains are naturally low in fat. Keep them this way by avoiding butter, cream and cheese sauces.
▪️ Vegetables: 4 to 5 servings a day.
Tomatoes, carrots, broccoli, sweet potatoes, greens and other vegetables are full of fiber, vitamins, and such minerals as potassium and magnesium. Examples of one serving include 1 cup raw leafy green vegetables or 1/2 cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables.
_ Don’t think of vegetables only as side dishes — a hearty blend of vegetables served over brown rice or whole-wheat noodles can serve as the main dish for a meal.
_ Fresh and frozen vegetables are both good choices. When buying frozen and canned vegetables, choose those labeled as low sodium or without added salt.
_ To increase the number of servings you fit in daily, be creative. In a stir-fry, for instance, cut the amount of meat in half and double up on the vegetables.
▪️ Fruits: 4 to 5 servings a day.
Many fruits need little preparation to become a healthy part of a meal or snack. Like vegetables, they’re packed with fiber, potassium and magnesium and are typically low in fat — coconuts are an exception.
Examples of one serving include one medium fruit, 1/2 cup fresh, frozen or canned fruit, or 4 ounces of juice.
_ Have a piece of fruit with meals and one as a snack, then round out your day with a dessert of fresh fruits topped with a dollop of low-fat yogurt.
_ Leave on edible peels whenever possible. The peels of apples, pears and most fruits add interesting texture to recipes and contain healthy nutrients and fiber.
_ Remember that citrus fruits and juices, such as grapefruit, can interact with certain medications, so check with your doctor or pharmacist to see if they’re OK for you.
_ If you choose canned fruit or juice, make sure no sugar is added.
▪️ Dairy: 2 to 3 servings a day.
Milk, yogurt, cheese and other dairy products are major sources of calcium, vitamin D and protein. But the key is to make sure that you choose dairy products that are low-fat or fat-free because otherwise they can be a major source of fat — and most of it is saturated.
Examples of one serving include 1 cup skim or 1 percent milk, 1 cup low-fat yogurt, or 1 1/2 ounces part-skim cheese.
_ Low-fat or fat-free frozen yogurt can help you boost the amount of dairy products you eat while offering a sweet treat. Add fruit for a healthy twist.
_ If you have trouble digesting dairy products, choose lactose-free products or consider taking an over-the-counter product that contains the enzyme lactase, which can reduce or prevent the symptoms of lactose intolerance.
_ Go easy on regular and even fat-free cheeses because they are typically high in sodium.
▪️ Lean meat, poultry and fish: 6 one-ounce servings or fewer a day.
Meat can be a rich source of protein, B vitamins, iron and zinc. Choose lean varieties and aim for no more than 6 one-ounce servings a day. Cutting back on your meat portion will allow room for more vegetables.
Examples of one serving include 1 egg or 1 ounce of cooked meat, poultry or fish.
_ Trim away skin and fat from poultry and meat and then bake, broil, grill or roast instead of frying in fat.
_ Eat heart-healthy fish, such as salmon, herring and tuna. These types of fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are healthy for your heart.
▪️ Nuts, seeds and legumes: 4 to 5 servings a week.
Almonds, sunflower seeds, kidney beans, peas, lentils and other foods in this family are good sources of magnesium, potassium and protein.
They’re also full of fiber and phytochemicals, which are plant compounds that may protect against some cancers and cardiovascular disease.
Serving sizes are small and are intended to be consumed only a few times a week because these foods are higher in calories.
Examples of one serving include 1/3 cup nuts, 2 tablespoons seeds or nut butter, or 1/2 cup cooked beans or peas.
_ Nuts sometimes get a bad rap because of their fat content, but they contain healthy types of fat — monounsaturated fat and omega-3 fatty acids. Nuts are high in calories, however, so eat them in moderation. Try adding them to stir-fries, salads or cereals.
_ Soybean-based products, such as tofu and tempeh, can be a good alternative to meat because they contain all of the amino acids your body needs to make a complete protein, just like meat.
▪️ Fats and oils: 2 to 3 servings a day.
Fat helps your body absorb essential vitamins and helps your body’s immune system. But too much fat increases your risk of heart disease, diabetes and obesity.
The DASH diet strives for a healthy balance by limiting total fat to less than 30 percent of daily calories from fat, with a focus on the healthier monounsaturated fats.
Examples of one serving include 1 teaspoon soft margarine, 1 tablespoon mayonnaise or 2 tablespoons salad dressing.
_ Saturated fat and trans fat are the main dietary culprits in increasing your risk of coronary artery disease. DASH helps keep your daily saturated fat to less than 6 percent of your total calories by limiting use of meat, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream and eggs in your diet, along with foods made from lard, solid shortenings, and palm and coconut oils.
_ Avoid trans fat, commonly found in such processed foods as crackers, baked goods and fried items.
_ Read food labels on margarine and salad dressing so that you can choose foods that are lowest in saturated fat and free of trans fat.
▪️ Sweets: 5 servings or fewer a week.
You don’t have to banish sweets entirely while following the DASH diet — just go easy on them. Examples of one serving include 1 tablespoon sugar, jelly or jam, 1/2 cup sorbet, or 1 cup lemonade.
_ When you eat sweets, choose those that are fat-free or low-fat, such as sorbets, fruit ices, jelly beans, hard candy, graham crackers or low-fat cookies.
_ Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame (NutraSweet, Equal) and sucralose (Splenda) may help satisfy your sweet tooth while sparing the sugar. But remember that you still must use them sensibly. It’s OK to swap a diet cola for a regular cola, but not in place of a more nutritious beverage such as low-fat milk or even plain water.
_ Cut back on added sugar, which has no nutritional value but can pack on calories.
DASH diet: caffeine.
The DASH diet doesn’t address caffeine consumption. The influence of caffeine on blood pressure remains unclear. But caffeine can cause your blood pressure to rise at least temporarily.
DASH diet and weight loss.
While the DASH diet is not a weight-loss program, you may indeed lose unwanted pounds because it can help guide you toward healthier food choices.
The DASH diet generally includes about 2,000 calories a day. If you’re trying to lose weight, you may need to eat fewer calories. You may also need to adjust your serving goals based on your individual circumstances — something your health care team can help you decide.
Tips to reduce sodium intake.
▪️ Reduce your intake of processed meats as well as prepared sauces.
▪️ Get rid of the water in cans or opt for unsalted canned foods.
▪️ Keep the saltcellar off the table.
▪️ Do not neglect exercising regularly, as physical activity plays a role in maintaining a healthy heart, so make sure to exercise at least 150 minutes per week.
Benefits of the DASH diet.
Numerous research and practical experiences have proven several benefits of the DASH diet:
1. Reducing blood pressure: within only two weeks of starting this system, and after continuing it for a period, it helps reduce the systolic blood pressure rate from 8 to 14 points.
2. Helps maintain bone strength and density, and prevent osteoporosis because it includes eating appropriate amounts of calcium and leafy vegetables.
3. Eating large amounts of fresh and frozen fruit protects against cancer in the long run.
4. The DASH diet protects against metabolic disorders such as: cardiovascular disease and diabetes, because it includes eating balanced meals that contain little fat, and eating complex carbohydrates, which helps lower cholesterol, and thus lowers blood pressure.
5. Prevention of gout, lowers the level of uric acid.
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