Several groups of elements can be termed metals. Here is look at the location of the metals on the periodic table and their common properties:
Examples of Metals.
Most of the elements on the periodic table are metals, including gold, silver, platinum, mercury, uranium, aluminum, sodium, and calcium. Alloys, such as brass and bronze, also are metals.
Of the metals, only mercury is a liquid at room temperature and pressure; all the rest are solids.Location of Metals on the Periodic Table. Metals are located on the left side and the middle of the periodic table. Group IA and Group IIA (the alkali metals) are the most active metals. The transition elements, groups IB to VIIIB, are also considered metals. The basic metals make up the element to the right of the transition metals. The bottom two rows of elements beneath the body of the periodic table are the lanthanides and actinides, which are also metals.Geologists have used chemical compositions in addition to the structures of minerals; This is in order to understand the origin of the rocks that formed those minerals, and thus we can understand the nature of the geological processes that exist inside or above the surface of the earth, as understanding often began in this field with attempts to identify and work on classifying unknown minerals so that geologists relied on the physical and chemical properties that can be easily noticeable.
Earth scientists, since the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, carried equipment for the primitive chemical analysis of minerals in the field; In order to help identify it, one of these tests was the use of dilute hydrochloric acid on metals to find out its reaction or non-reaction with the naked eye, where the reaction (furan) indicates the rise of carbon dioxide, which means that the mineral is likely to have a carbonate composition, and one of the most important properties The physical properties of the minerals are:
1. Optical properties.
which depend on light, examples of which are:
▪️ Luster: It is the appearance that occurs on the surface of the mineral in reflected light, and it is of two types (metallic luster and non-metallic luster).
▪️ Color: The color of the mineral is the first physical characteristic that the geologist (the world of the earth) sees and can distinguish with the naked eye.
▪️ Transparency: This property expresses the ability of a mineral to pass light, as the minerals that allow light to pass through clearly are called transparent minerals.
▪️ Scratched: It is the color of the fine powder, which was easily extracted by rubbing the metal on the surface of a white porcelain slab, provided that the slab is matt, which is known as scratched slate.
2. Cohesive properties.
They are properties that depend on the cohesion of the metal and its flexibility, examples of which are hardness, detachment, brittleness, ductility and ductility.
3. Electromagnetic properties.
These properties depend on and depend on electricity and magnetism, examples of which are thermoelectricity, piezoelectricity and magnetism.
4. Specific weight.
which means the density of the mineral compared to the density of water as it is measured in relative terms.
5. Thermal properties.
These properties include many types such as heat of formation, heat of crystallization, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, heat of dissolution, and solubility, but one of the most important of these properties that help in identifying the metal is the ability to melt.
6. Other properties.
It has properties that are considered secondary to the primary physical properties such as taste, texture, smell and radioactivity.
The alkali metals.
are a chemical series of the elements in the first group of the periodic table, with the exception of hydrogen, which are: lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium, and francium. All of these elements are chemically active, so it is rare for any of them to exist in their singular state. They are often stored in mineral oils or kerosene so that they do not interact with air.
Alkali metals have a silver color and are solid as they are of low density, and they react strongly with halogens to form an ionic salt, and they react with water to form alkaline hydroxide (base), but that is only after violent explosions! All elements of this chain have an electron in their outer shell, so they reach their best energy position in an electron envelope filled by losing an electron to form an ion with a positive charge of 1.
All alkali metals have an outer electron in the s orbital: this common electronic configuration results in their having very similar characteristic properties. Indeed, the alkali metals provide the best example of group trends in properties in the periodic table, with elements exhibiting well-characterized symmetric behaviour. This family of elements is also known as the lithium family after its main component.
The alkaline earth metals.
are the series of elements in the second group of the periodic table: beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, radium (radium is not always considered among the elements of this series because it has a short half-life.
The alkaline earth metals were named by this name on the basis of their oxides, the earth metals, whose ancient names were beryllia, magnesia, lime, strontia, and baryta. These oxides are called alkaline earths due to their nature between alkalis (oxides of alkali metals) and rare earth metals (oxides of rare earth metals).
الخواص الفيزيائية للمعادن/ https://e3arabi-com
“Properties of the Basic Metals Element Group”, www.thoughtco.com
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