The most prominent Muslim scholars.

Without the knowledge and influence of these great people, the world wouldn’t be what it is today.

With that being said, let’s have a look at the top 10 Muslim scientists of all time, and how their work still has a major impact in our day-to-day lives:

1. Al-Khwārizmī

Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī.

Muhamad al- Khwārizmī, considerably known as the father of algebra (a title shared with Diophantus), was a Persian born who contributed immensely to the advancement of mathematics and language as well. In the 12th century, he introduced Indian numerals which were translated into Latin and gained popularity in the western world.

This great man also revised and updated Ptolemy’s Geography and also wrote on astrology and astronomy.

2. Ibn-Sīnā.

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā.

Accenna, Latinized form of Ibn-Sīnā, Arabic full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Sīnā, was born in 980 CE and was a Persian Polymath who was recognized as one of the most brilliant minds in that era (Islamic Golden Age).

Ibn- Sīnā worked on 450 projects, and 240 of those works included work and medicine.

One of his most famous projects (The Book of Healing) became a standard medical guide at many universities during that era and was used until the 16th century.

He also contributed to astronomy, as well as geology, mathematics, physics and geography.

3. Jabir bin Hayyan.

Abu Musa Jaber bin Hayyan bin Abdullah Al-Azdi Al-Kufi.

commonly acknowledged as Geber, was a Persian born in 721 AD.

His main interests were alchemy, chemistry, astronomy, astrology, medicine and Pharmacy, Philosophy, Physics, and was also a philanthropist. Geber’s original works are extremely exoteric and secured. Up till today, nobody knows what the codes are.

He was also known as the father of chemistry due to his great influence in the chemistry world.

4. Al-Jazari.

Al-Jazari, whose real name was Badīʿ az-Zaman Abū l-ʿIzz Ismāʿīl ibn ar-Razāz al-Jazarī, was born in 1136 CE and was a Muslim scholar, inventor, artist, mathematician and mechanical engineer.

His best project was The Book of Knowledge of Indigenous Mechanical Devices, which was written in 1206 and coincided with the year he died.

5. Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Kathir Al-Farghani.

Abu Al Abbas Ahmed bin Mohammed bin Katheer Al-Farghani. Al-Farghani was a mathematician and astronomer. He was born in the ninth century in Baghdad and was interested in Ptolemy.

He also participated in measuring the diameter of the Earth by calculating the length of the meridian arc with the help of the team of scientists. The crater of the moon, known as Fraganus, is named after him.

6. Al-Rāzī.

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyyā al-Rāzī, also known by his Latinized name Rhasis or Rhazes, was a Persian born in 854 CE was a philosopher who contributed to various fields of science, including medicine, chemistry and philosophy.

Most of his works were recorded in books and articles as he made numerous advancements in medicine through his observations and research.

7. Al-Bīrūnī.

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, commonly known as Al-Biruni, was a psychologist, physicist, psychologist and astronomer, born in 973 CE.

He was regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era due to his great contributions to the natural sciences. Along with all those skills, he was a historian and a great linguist.

He also spoke multiple languages including Greek, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Hebrew and Syriac.

8. Al_Khazni.

Abul-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansour, an Islamic astronomer, was born in Byzantium, Greece.He was very noble and never accepted money for his business, claiming he had enough to support his cat.

He was a physicist, chemist, biologist and philosopher, influenced by Greek-Byzantine philosophy.His works were very popular in the Islamic world to this day.

9 Ibn al-Haytham.

Abu Ali Al-Hassan bin Al-Hassan bin Al-Haytham.

The father of modern optics ”, where he made many great contributions in mathematics, engineering, psychology, medicine, physics and visual perception.He proved the modern theory of introversion of vision by experimenting with lenses and mirrors and the dispersion of light into multiple colors as shown in the optics book.

10. Al-Kindi .

Abu Yusef Yaqoub bin Ishaq Ahmed Al-Sabah, better known as Al-Kindi.

He was a philosopher, scientist, astrologer, cosmologist, musician, and meteorologist.Al-Kindi contributed greatly to the introduction of Indian numerals into the Muslim and Christian world.

He also contributed to physics, logistics, chemistry and the natural sciences.

11 Ibn Al-Bitar.

Diaa Al-Din Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Ahmed Al-Maliki. A botanist, his work in the field of medicine was recognized by the general public and lasted for many years, even after his death.

One of his famous texts, which was widely used, was a compendium of medicines and simple foods.In this pharmaceutical encyclopedia, Al-Bitar recorded 1,400 species of plants, herbs and foods.

He discovered 200 of his 1,400 plants and made recommendations for their use in medicine.

12. Ibn al-Nafis.

Abu al-Hasan Alaa al-Din Ali bin Abi al-Hazm al-Khalidi al-Makhzumi al-Qurashi al-Dimashqi.Ibn al-Nafis was a physician in the Islamic Golden Age.

He was born in Damascus, Syria, in 1213 A.D., and is best known for his work in the field of blood circulation.

He was the first to describe the pulmonary circulation.

13. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.

Abu Jaafar Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Al-Hassan Al-Tusi.

Like many other Muslim scholars on our list, Al-Tusi made an invaluable contribution to several sciences: mathematics, physics, astronomy, philosophy and medicine.

Al-Tusi was born in Tus, modern Iran, in 1201 CE.

References :

“The Top 10 Greatest Muslim Scientists Of All Time”,

“Muslim scientists of the Islamic Golden Age”,,13-12-2019

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