Education

Types of crime.

“The punishment may be the same, but the act is different.” According to the nature of the crime committed, the crime may be theft of a person, but the difference in the incident leads, of course, to the difference in the punishment, so the legal legislator was keen to gradually impose penalties according to the size, nature and seriousness of the crime committed, so we find that the penalty of imprisonment Less force than imprisonment, which also differs from strict imprisonment. The legislator aimed from this gradation that justice would prevail, and in the event of a repeat of the act, a more severe punishment would be applied to the accused.

Types of crimes according to their severity.

Crimes can be divided into several categories and according to different criteria, especially in the case of looking at the elements and elements of the crime. Therefore, the first classification of crimes depends on the basis of punishment, in terms of whether the punishment is a felony, a penalty, a misdemeanor, or a violation penalty.

It is detailed as follows.

According to the degree of severity. Felony It is the most serious type of crime, and its punishment ranges from death, life imprisonment, hard labor, or imprisonment. As for misdemeanour, it ranks second in terms of seriousness, and its punishment is imprisonment for three years and the payment of a fine, or one of these two penalties. The violation is one of the simplest types of crimes, and its punishment is imprisonment. From one day to ten, and a fine, according to its nature.

1. Felony.

are those crimes that are punishable by the following penalties: death, life imprisonment, temporary hard labor, or imprisonment. Of those crimes that are classified according to the material or moral element, and in order to distinguish between many crimes, the law takes into account the penalties prescribed for each crime.

2. Misdemeanors.

are those crimes that are punishable by imprisonment or a fine. The lesson here is the penalty prescribed for the crime, regardless of the penalty that the judge of the competent court actually rules. This penalty may increase in terms of type or amount, or the penalty may be less than what is prescribed in the law In pursuance of the aggravating or mitigating circumstances, which the court judge takes without affecting the type of crime, and the lesson in determining the nature of the crime is the maximum prescribed in the text penalizing that crime without regard to the minimum in type or amount.

3. Violation.

is every act or omission of an act that is criminalized by law, and therefore requires the imposition of the legally prescribed penalty, which often ranges from imprisonment for the perpetrator of that violation for a period of one day and may reach up to two months, or a financial fine according to what is decided by the rules of the law. The criterion for dividing crimes into felonies, misdemeanors, and contravention, had made the penalty for felony different from misdemeanors and infractions, and made the criterion of distinction between misdemeanors and infractions subject to the penalty stipulated in the law, and the penalty scale here is by reference to the maximum limit rather than the minimum.

Types of crimes according to their nature.

▪️ Political crime: It is committed for political reasons, in which the political system and political symbols of the state are attacked, crimes that violate the constitution, crimes of incitement and demonstrations against the state, and crimes of publishing and the political press.Criminal jurisprudence classifies political crimes according to two criteria:

1. Personal criterion: It is the criterion according to which the actual or committed act is considered a political crime, whenever the motive or motive of the perpetrator is a political motive, such as someone who aims to overthrow the existing political regime in the state.

2. Objective criterion: It is the criterion according to which the act is considered a political crime, whenever the aim is to prejudice one of the political rights of the institutions of government or one of the political rights of citizens.

▪️ Military crime: It is in which military interests are disrupted and assaulted, such as violating military orders, and assaulting the army and security system.

Military crimes are of two types:

1. Minor military offenses: These offenses include all acts criminalized by the Military Judgment Law.

2. Mixed military crimes: These include the acts criminalized by the Military Judgment Law and the Penal Code.

▪️ Economic crimes: they are related to the theft of state public funds, infringement on the national economy, and corruption of production and economic distribution processes.Pictures of economic crimes.

1. Crimes of unjustly benefiting at the expense of the general economy.

2. Crimes of breach of economic obligations.

3. Crimes affecting public financial confidence.

▪️ Social crimes: they pertain to social motives stemming from revenge, hatred, greed, revenge against people, family problems, and moral issues.Among the most important patterns of social behavior that constitute crimes from a social point of view:

1. Crimes against the property of the individual such as: theft, arson and vandalism of property.

2. Crimes against the individual: such as murder and beatings.

3. Crimes against public order: such as crimes of state security and spreading chaos and sabotage.

4. Crimes against religion: such as assaulting places of worship or disturbing order there.

5. Crimes against the family: such as treason, neglect and adultery.

6. Crimes against morals: such as indecent and indecent acts in public areas.

7. Crimes against the vital resources of society:

such as: fishing in the off-season, irrigation at unspecified times, or squandering the wealth of society.

▪️ Terrorist crimes :Terrorist crimes are relatively recent, and most legislations did not define the terrorist crime, but only criminalized the terrorist act. Therefore, terrorist crimes are those acts or crimes that consist of two elements. Public property, or both. As for the moral component, it is represented in the perpetrator’s desire to frighten people and sow terror in their souls.

Elements of terrorist crime.

A terrorist crime, like other crimes, must have three pillars:

1. Legal corner. It is not permissible to consider an act or omission to do a certain act as a crime, unless there is an explicit legal text that is unambiguous, criminalizing this act or refraining from it.

2. material corner. In a terrorist crime, the moral element is the material activity of the terrorist perpetrator or criminal, whether it is in the form of an action or in the form of abstaining from an action.

3. The moral corner. The moral element is represented in directing the terrorist criminal his voluntary activity in order to achieve a criminal incident classified as a terrorist crime.

▪️ Public right crimes: which are all acts that occur and aim at assaulting private and public property, as well as assaulting people. Therefore, public right crimes are all acts criminalized under legal legislation, since the offender who committed these crimes aimed to achieve his personal interest, and did not It was not intended to spread terror or fear in the hearts of people, otherwise it would be included in terrorist crimes, and on this basis this act is considered a kind of crime that affects the public right, and that requires the imposition of the punishment prescribed in the law.

Crimes according to the image of the act.

The law divided the crime into positive and negative, but this division came based on the consequences of it.

The positive crime is the actions that take the form of direct action and positive activity, such as murder, rape, and theft, while negative crime are crimes that are in the form of refraining from doing an act, such as abstinence. about the certificate.

according to its timing.

It was divided into:

▪️ An immediate crime is a temporary crime, which occurs directly and takes place at the same time in the form of a complete crime; Like killing that leads to the loss of the soul at the same time as the crime, or like a fire that ignites at the same moment, like throwing fire on something flammable.

▪️ A continuing crime is a criminal act that is characterized by its continuity and extension over time, and the time of its commission is prolonged; So that the criminal hides the features of his crime, such as stealing and concealing things, such as murders that do not appear at first, such as buying drugs and concealing weapons, and kidnapping and imprisoning people.

▪️ A successive crime is a crime that is repeated, and the criminal continues to commit it; Such as blocking the road, constantly torturing and beating people, repeating thefts to separate places and things, assaulting many people, and repeatedly defrauding them.

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