ChemistrySciences

What is metabolism?

Metabolism is a biochemical process in which the body converts food into energy, through a series of chemical reactions in which it destroys nutrients inside the digestive system and turns them into energy through building and destroying cells and tissues.

Metabolism.

During the process of metabolism, the process of converting food into energy takes place through a series of chemical reactions in which basic nutrients are broken down into molecules and this process is called catabolism, resulting in energy. These molecules are also used to create more complex materials to build cells and tissues and this process is called anabolism.

Metabolism consists of two opposite processes, which are:

▪️ Construction (Anabolism):

Anabolic metabolism, which is the process of building body tissues and building energy stores, and includes supporting cell growth and creating new cells, and maintaining body tissues such as muscles, and in this process small molecules are converted into larger and more complex molecules of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

▪️ Demolition (catabolism):

Catabolic metabolism, a process that produces energy for cellular activities, in which large molecules, mostly fats and carbohydrates, are broken down to produce the energy needed for anabolic metabolism, maintaining body heat and providing energy for muscle movement. Whereas, waste products associated with energy production are eliminated from the body through the skin, kidneys, lungs and intestines.

In the cell’s metabolic network, some chemical reactions release energy, and they can occur spontaneously without the input of energy.

But some cells need energy input, in order to be able to carry out this process, so you must constantly eat food, to replace what your body uses, as the food you eat is the source of energy that your cells use.

The body needs energy to perform all its functions, even if you are at a time of rest and making little effort, or even when we are asleep.

During this period, the body needs energy to perform its implicit functions, such as: breathing, blood circulation, adjusting hormone levels, growth, and cell repair.

The number of calories the body burns to carry out these basic functions is called the basal metabolic rate.

Factors that determine the body’s metabolism rate.

There are several factors that determine the number of calories the body burns for energy, and these factors include:

1- Body size and structure.

People who are bulkier or more muscular burn more calories than others, even during their rest time.

2- Gender.

The gender of a person, whether male or female, determines the amount of calories they burn. Usually men have less fat and more muscle, compared to women of the same age and weight.Having more muscle means that a man burns more calories than a woman.

3- Age.

As you get older, your muscles lose weight, and so fat becomes the largest proportion of your weight. Hence, calories burned slows down.

The energy needs for the body to carry out its basic functions remain constant and do not change easily.

In addition to the basal metabolic rate, which is, as previously mentioned, the rate of burning calories to produce the energy required for the body to carry out its basic vital functions, there are two other factors that determine the number of calories that the body burns daily, namely:

1- Food processing.

The process of digesting food, absorbing nutrients, transporting and storing what you have eaten, requires energy that is obtained from burning calories.

An estimated 10% of the calories that come from the carbohydrates and proteins you eat are used up during the digestion and absorption of food and nutrients.

2- Physical activity.

It is necessary to do physical activities and exercise, and all the activities that you do during the day, starting from moving out of bed in the morning until you return to it in the evening, burning calories, so that the body can produce the energy that makes you able to do this.

Physical activity, especially exercise, is the most variable factor in determining the amount of calories you burn each day, meaning the more effort you put in, the more energy you need. And then I burned more calories.

Ways to increase your metabolism.

1- Build muscle.

The body is constantly burning calories, even when you are doing nothing. However, the metabolism rate is higher than that for people who struggle with muscle. The equation is as follows: “Every pound of muscle uses about 6 calories a day just to maintain itself, while every pound of fat burns 2 calories a day.”

2- Build your own sports system.

Aerobic exercise may not build much muscle, but it can increase your metabolism after a workout. The key is to push yourself. High-intensity exercise provides a greater rise and longer metabolic rate break than low or medium-intensity workouts.

3- Drink water frequently.

Your body needs water to process calories. If you are slightly dehydrated, your metabolism may slow down. In one study, adults who drank eight or more glasses of water per day burned more calories than those who drank four.

4- Do not drink more energy drinks.

Certain ingredients in energy drinks can give your metabolism a boost. They are high in caffeine, which increases the amount of energy your body uses up. They sometimes contain taurine, which is an amino acid. Taurine can speed up your metabolism and may aid in burning fats. But the use of these drinks can cause problems such as high blood pressure, anxiety, and sleep problems in some people.

5- A smart meal!

Eating too much can help you lose weight. When you eat large meals with long hours, your metabolism rate decreases between meals. Having a small meal or snack every 3 to 4 hours keeps your metabolism going.

6- Add spices to your meals.

Spicy foods contain natural chemicals that can make your metabolism higher. Cooking foods that contain a tablespoon of chopped red or green chili can boost your metabolism rate.

7- Up your activity with protein.

Your body burns more calories digesting protein than eating fats or carbohydrates. As part of a balanced diet, replacing some carbohydrates with protein-free foods can boost your metabolism at mealtimes.

8- Drink black coffee.

If you like coffee, you might enjoy the perks of energy and focus. One of the benefits of coffee could be a long-term boost in metabolism. Caffeine can help you feel less tired and even increase your endurance while exercising.

9- Don’t forget green tea.

Drinking green tea or oolong tea offers the combined benefits of caffeine and antioxidants, substances that appear to increase the metabolic rate for a few hours. Research indicates that drinking 2 to 4 cups of either tea may cause the body to burn 17% of calories during moderate exercise for a short time.

10- Maintain a moderate diet.

A defective diet is known as this which includes eating fewer than 1,200 (if it’s a woman) or 1,800 (if it’s a man) calories a day – this equation is counterproductive in speeding up your metabolism. Although these diets may help you lose weight, the end result is “your body burns fewer calories and gains weight faster than before the diet.”

How to calculate the rate of metabolism.

The metabolic rate of men and women is calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation:

▪️ A man’s metabolic rate (calories / day) = 88.362 + (13.397 x weight in kilograms) + (4.799 x height in centimeters) – (5.677 x age in years).

▪️ The women’s metabolic rate (calories / day) = 444.593 + (9.247 x weight in kg) + (3.098 x height in centimeters) – (4.33 x age in years).

The average basic metabolism rate for men is about 7100 kilojoules per day, while the average normal metabolic rate for women is about 5900 kilojoules per day. The rate of energy consumption varies throughout the day, and energy expenditure is usually lowest in the early morning.

Metabolism and weight.

It may be tempting to blame your metabolism for weight gain. But because metabolism is a natural process, your body has many mechanisms that regulate it to meet your individual needs.

Only in rare cases do you get excessive weight gain from a medical problem that slows metabolism, such as Cushing’s syndrome or having an underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism).

Unfortunately, weight gain is a complicated process. It’s likely a combination of genetic makeup, hormonal controls, diet composition and the impact of environment on your lifestyle, including sleep, physical activity and stress.

All of these factors result in an imbalance in the energy equation. You gain weight when you eat more calories than you burn — or burn fewer calories than you eat.

While it is true that some people seem to be able to lose weight more quickly and more easily than others, everyone loses weight when they burn up more calories than they eat. To lose weight, you need to create an energy deficit by eating fewer calories or increasing the number of calories you burn through physical activity or both.

References :

الأيض.. معلومات أساسية/ www.aljazeera.net

التمثيل الغذائي – عملية الايض/ https://altibbi-com

ما هي عملية الأيض؟ وكيف تؤثر في زيادة الوزن أو نقصانه؟/ https://arabicpost.net/10

طرق لزيادة عملية الأيض في النظام الغذائي الخاص بك!/ https://www.annahar.com

Metabolism and weight loss: How you burn calories/www.mayoclinic.org

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