Consciousness and the unconscious are two contradictory states of feelings and attitudes, dreaming and wakefulness, spontaneity and pre-planning, and the daily behavior of the human being depends on the duality of consciousness and the unconscious.
Human behavior differs and their reactions to different situations, there are those who act in advance planning and take all measures before expressing a word or action, and some of them have these behaviors automatically and outside the state of pre-planning, and all of this is done by the person with the same senses, but with different behavioral patterns that belong to the person and his nature. His culture, the nature of the situation in which he is placed, and the actions based on this position by absolute will, or by deviating from the scope of the will.
What is the concept of consciousness?
Consciousness is a word that expresses a mental state in which the mind is in a state of awareness and in direct contact with its external surroundings through the outlets of consciousness that are usually represented by the five human senses. Consciousness in many psychologists also represents the mental state that characterizes the human being with the faculties of logical judgment, subjectivity, self-awareness, sense, wisdom or rationality and the ability to perceive. The perception of the relationship between the personal entity and its natural surroundings.
Awareness of a subject includes knowledge of it and interacting positively or negatively with it with this knowledge.
In conclusion, awareness: is what a person has in terms of ideas, perspectives, and concepts about life and the nature around him.
Awareness may be false consciousness, when a person’s thoughts, views, and concepts do not coincide with the reality around him, and it is also unrealistic awareness and it may be partial awareness, when the ideas and concepts are confined to a specific aspect or aspect and do not include all aspects, aspects and interconnected levels which are Affect and affect each other in the process of life development.
Types of consciousness.
There are a number of things that can cause changes in an individual’s consciousness, some naturally occurring, while others result from external interventions, such as drugs or brain damage.
Changes in consciousness can also lead to changes in perception, thinking, understanding, and interpretations of the world.
Altered levels of consciousness may also occur, which may be caused by medical or mental conditions that impair or alter consciousness.
Some of the different states of consciousness include:
Types of consciousness.
1. Spontaneous awareness.It is the kind of awareness that is the basis for our conducting a specific activity, without requiring us to have much mental effort, so that it does not prevent us from engaging in other mental activities.
2. Contemplative awareness.It is, unlike the first, requires a strong mental presence, and is based on higher mental capabilities, such as intelligence, perception, and memory … and then it prevents us from engaging in any other activity.
3. Intuitive awareness.It is the direct and sudden awareness that makes us aware of things, relationships, or knowledge without being able to come to any inference.
4. Moral normative awareness.It is he who makes us make valuable judgments about things and behaviors, and we either reject or accept them, based on moral convictions. Often this awareness is related to how responsible we feel towards ourselves and others.
Modern theories of consciousness.
▪️Integrated information theory:
This approach looks at consciousness by learning more about the physical processes, on which our conscious experiences are based, the theory tries to create a measure of the integrated information that forms consciousness, the quality of the organism’s consciousness is represented by the level of integration, and this theory tends to focus on whether there is something. He is conscious, and to what degree he is conscious.
▪️Global workspace theory:
This theory proposes that we have a memory bank, from which the brain derives information to form the experience of conscious awareness, while integrated information theory focuses more on determining whether an organism is conscious, global workspace theory offers a much broader approach to understanding how consciousness works.
The concept of the unconscious mind.The unconscious mind is the mind that is the source of dreams and automatic thoughts – those that appear without any apparent reason – and the storehouse of forgotten memories – which may still be accessible to consciousness at a later time – and the location of tacit knowledge – things that we have learned so well that we do without thinking – It should be noted that consciousness is affected by other parts of the mind, and from these parts it is the unconscious as it is a personal habit, being unconscious by individuals and as a part of intuition.
Some of the phenomena associated between conscious and unconscious include phenomena such as; Semi-awakening, implicit memory, subliminal messages, calmness and hypnosis, while sleep, sleepwalking, dreaming, delirium and coma may indicate the presence of unconscious processes, these processes are symptoms and not an unconscious mind itself. Some critics have questioned the existence of the unconscious.
How to bring unconscious information into consciousness.
There are a few different ways in which information can be entered, from the subconscious into the conscious awareness:
▪️Free Bond: Freud also believed that he was able to bring these unconscious feelings into consciousness, through the use of a technique called free association, he asked patients to relax and say anything that comes to mind without any consideration of how trivial, irrelevant, or embarrassing, by tracking These thought currents, Freud believed he could discover the contents of the unconscious mind, where there are pent-up desires and painful childhood memories.
▪️Dream Interpretation: Freud also suggested that dreams were another path to the subconscious, while information from the unconscious mind may sometimes appear in dreams, he believed that it was often in disguise. Dream interpretation often includes examining the literal content of the dream, (known as the apparent content) in an attempt to uncover the hidden, unconscious meaning of the dream (the latent content).
Consciousness and the unconscious in the Maya civilizations.
The ancient Maya civilization – in Central America – was the first to propose a specific definition for each level and purpose of consciousness.
Because awareness includes stimuli from the environment in addition to internal stimuli; The ancient Maya believed that consciousness is the basic form of existence and that it is capable of development.
Consciousness and the unconscious of “John Locke”
“Awareness is the awareness of what is going on in the human mind.”
The English philosopher “John Locke” is one of the first who spoke and wrote about consciousness and the unconscious.
“Locke” believed that our identity is related to our consciousness, which he defined as: (what passes through the human mind or his memories), and that personal awareness may be lost as a result of the repressed or forgotten memories and motives of the individual.
He also asserted that our consciousness is not connected to our physical bodies, and that it can live even after our physical bodies die.
In fact, “Locke” believed that consciousness does not die, but rather moves from one soul to another and from one world to another.
Locke referred to the so-called “collective unconscious”, which contains inherited ancestral memories shared by all of humanity.
Consciousness and the unconscious for “René Descartes”.
“I think, therefore I exist”
The French philosopher René Descartes also addressed the idea of consciousness and the unconscious in the seventeenth century, and suggested that the act of thinking itself illustrates the reality of the individual’s existence and consciousness.
Descartes proceeded to answer the question:
How could our awareness be? Is it something immaterial or something material?
Descartes presented one of his most famous treatises on the explanation of consciousness, what is called “Cartesian dualism”.
The idea is that consciousness resides in two types of entities:
▪️The intangible scale is consciousness or thinking.
▪️The physical scale is the realm of the extension.
He suggested that the interaction between these two domains occurs in the middle of the brain, specifically in the pineal gland.
Consciousness and the unconscious for “Freud”.
The psychoanalytic theory of the famous Austrian psychologist “Sigmund Freud” is one of the most popular theories to explain consciousness and the unconscious.
Sigmund Freud defined the unconscious – in psychoanalytic theory – as:
▪️A repository of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories outside of conscious awareness.
▪️According to Freud, the unconscious can include:Suppressed feelings, hidden memories, habits, thoughts, desires, and reactions.
Memories and emotions that are very painful, embarrassing, shameful, or distressing of the conscious level.
To identify the roots of psychological distress; Freud used techniques such as “dream analysis” and “free combination”. To highlight true feelings.
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