EducationHealth

What is the virus

We are all exposed to a lot of viruses on a daily basis, they are present on everything we touch, and everywhere we are. Viruses cause many diseases that our immune system protects us from at many times, but it weakens in front of them sometimes, causing different diseases and showing symptoms that vary in severity and seriousness according to the virus. We get colds and flu, or more serious diseases such as hepatitis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).


What is a virus?
A virus is a group of tiny infectious particles made up of genetic material encased in a protein coat. They do not have any organs to generate energy or reproduce and produce proteins, and they cause many diseases to humans, animals and plants.

How does the virus live?
Viruses are semi-living organisms. They cannot reproduce and grow outside the body of an organism, but they need living cells to incubate them to carry out biological processes in their place. Viruses unite with cells and live inside them for a while, then begin to form, develop and grow.


What is the virus made of?
The virus molecule consists of 3 basic layers:

  1. Nucleic acid: It is the core of the virus and its main component. It consists of the genetic material that carries the characteristics of the virus and makes it multiply and grow.
  2. Protein Coat: It is the protein layer that protects the DNA of the virus itself.
  3. Lipid membrane: It is the third layer that protects the protein layer, but some viruses do not have this layer and are called naked viruses.
    How does a person become infected with the virus?
    The virus cannot enter the human body as easily as some think. Here are the steps for its entry into the human body:
    • The virus enters the human body upon contact with human hands contaminated with the virus, his nose or mouth, or through saliva, or other modes of transmission.
    • The virus searches for receptors in the body, and each type of virus has its own receptor, and these receptors are usually on the surface of cells.
    • These receptors host viruses, so the virus enters its DNA into the cell and unites with it.
    • It begins to reproduce secretly during the incubation period during which the organism’s body tries to resist it. If the virus fails, symptoms of the virus appear on the person.

What are the most common types of viruses that infect humans?

-cold virus
-Influenza virus
-Gastrointestinal virus

-hepatitis virus

What is the relationship between the virus and the vaccine?
The beginning of the discovery by the scientist Edward Jenner, when he used the chickenpox virus to give people immunity against the disease itself, the idea is based on the following:
• Using a reduced or weak dose of the live virus, or a dose of antibodies resulting from the virus after its resistance.
• Injecting the dose into the healthy body so that the immune system recognizes the foreign body or virus.
• The body’s defense of itself and the fight against disease when exposed to the virus again.

Reference:

الفيروس: تعرف عليه في 6 أسئلة بسيطة! – ويب طب (webteb.com)

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