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World War I.

World War I, also called First World War or Great War, an international conflict that in 1914–18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions. The war pitted the Central Powers—mainly Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey—against the Allies—mainly France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and, from 1917, the United States. It ended with the defeat of the Central Powers. The war was virtually unprecedented in the slaughter, carnage, and destruction it caused.

From July 28, 1914 To November 11, 1918

Participating countries:

Bulgaria.

France.

Germany.

Italy.

Japan.

Ottoman Empire.

Portugal.

Russia.

United Kingdom.

United States.

_CAUSES:

1) The assassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by South Slav nationalist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914.

2) A naval arms race between Great Britain and the German Empire made conflict on the high seas almost inevitable.

3) German success in the Franco-German War fostered a belief in the supremacy of Prussian militarism.

4) Germany’s annexation of Alsace-Lorraine after the Franco-German War aroused a deep longing for revenge in the French people.

5) The Balkan Wars virtually eradicated the Ottoman presence in Europe, but led to violent strife among the victors.

_Outcomes.

_As many as 8.5 million soldiers and 13 million civilians died as a result of the war.

_Failure to deliver mandated reparations leads to the armed occupation of the Ruhr River valley region by French and Belgian troops.

_German militarists perpetuate the myth that the German Army was undefeated in battle, undermining faith in the civilian government of the Weimar Republic.

_Imperial dynasties in Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia collapsed.

_Mass movement of troops and refugees helped spread the Spanish flu, a devastating influenza pandemic that claimed as many as 50 million lives in 1918-19.

_Ottoman territories in the Middle East are divvied up among the victorious Allied powers at the Conference of San Remo.

_The League of Nations is established, but its effectiveness is hampered by the non-participation of the United States.

_KEY PEOPLE:

_Kemal Atatürk.

_Winston Churchill.

_Georges Clemenceau.

_Franz Joseph.

_Herbert Hoover.

_David Lloyd George.

_Nicholas II.

_George Patton.

_William II.

_Woodrow Wilson.

World War I was one of the great watersheds of 20th-century geopolitical history. It led to the fall of four great imperial dynasties (in Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey), resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and, in its destabilization of European society, laid the groundwork for World War II.

References :

John Graham Royde-Smith Dennis E. Showalter  “World War I”، www.britannica.com

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